The oldest child, Pierre, died soon after his birth on October 19,
Search Philosophy of Religion The philosophy of religion addresses not only the perennial question Is there a God? These are questions that everyone should ask themselves at some point in their lives.
This site attempts to demystify the philosophy of religion, and so to help people to reach views on these questions. Is There a God?
The first section of the site, Arguments for the Existence of Godexplains the classic arguments for a positive answer to the question Is there a God? That does not mean, however, that no progress has been made.
The ontological argumentfor instance, purports to prove the existence of a perfect being; the cosmological argument purports to prove the existence of a necessary or eternal Creator; the teleological argument purports to prove the existence of a Creator concerned with humanity.
The same can be said of many of the arguments for atheismexplained in the second section of the site. The challenge If God is just, then how can he also be forgiving? The challenge If God is all-knowing, then how can our choices be free?
The arguments for atheism, then, no less than the arguments for theism, influence the way that theists conceive of God, so contribute to the project of answering the question If there is a God, then what is he like?
What Does that Mean for Us? The third question, What does that mean for us? What follows is admittedly an oversimplification, but is, I think, an accurate representation of common responses to this question.
The implications of classical theism, if it is accepted in all of its details, are clear enough: If God exists then we were created for a purpose; we are valued, loved. If God exists then we also have an incentive, not to mention a moral duty, to fulfil this purpose; our eternal fate hangs on whether we follow God, as we were created to, or rebel against his authority.
Classical theism is therefore often felt to restrict our freedom, but to do so not because we are unimportant but rather because we are important and so have a duty of care to ourselves and to others.
Theism thus affirms our value even as it constrains our freedom. Atheism, plausibly, exerts pressure in the opposite direction: In general, those who have lacked belief in a next life have thought that this makes our choices in this life all the more important.
Sartre, for instance, thought that the absence of a divine Creator who defines who we are gives us absolute freedom to define ourselves. Because there is no God, there is no God-given human nature, and so each of us is, in a sense, his own Creator.
We are free to be who we want to be. Atheism has also, rightly or wrongly, been associated with a pessimistic view of human value.A short summary of Rene Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy.
This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of Meditations on First Philosophy. This comes on the heels of an earlier causal argument for God's existence in the Third Meditation, raising questions about the order and relation between these two distinct proofs.
Descartes repeats the ontological argument in a few other central texts including the Principles of Philosophy. He also defends it in the First, Second, and Fifth Replies against scathing objections by some of the leading intellectuals .
The Infinite. Working with the infinite is tricky business. Zeno’s paradoxes first alerted philosophers to this in B.C.E. when he argued that a fast runner such as Achilles has an infinite number of places to reach during the pursuit of a slower runner.
1-Sentence-Summary: Meditations On First Philosophy is the number one work of philosophy of the Western world, written by René Descartes in , abandoning everything that can possibly be doubted and then starting to reason his way from there.
Meditations on First Philosophy in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated (Latin: Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas demonstratur) is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in Latin in The French translation (by the Duke of Luynes with Descartes.
The Philosophy of Rene Descartes, a french rationalist Rene Descartes is the most famous french philosopher. Indeed, Descartes got nice charts of works to his credit among the best known.