A political scientist would most likely employ the concept of political socialization in a study examining: This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of basic political science terms and concepts. Political socialization is the process through which individuals develop ideas about government and politics.
Crowell,pp. The Electoral System To these socio-economic and historical factors a technical factor must be added: I expressed its effects in in the formulation of three sociological laws: The brutal finality of a majority vote on a single ballot forces parties with similar tendencies to regroup their forces at the risk of being overwhelmingly defeated.
Let us assume an election district in whichvoters with moderate views are opposed by 80, communist voters. If the moderates are divided into two parties, the communist candidate may well win the election; should one of his opponents receive more than 20, votes, the other will be left with less than 80, thereby insuring the election of the communist.
In the following election, the two parties with moderate views will naturally tend to unite.
Should they fail to do so, the weaker party would gradually be eliminated as a dual consequence of "under-representation" and "polarization.
Elections determined by a majority vote on one ballot literally pulverize third parties and would do worse to fourth or fifth parties, if there were any; but none exist for this very reason.
Even when a single ballot system operates with only two parties, the one that wins is favored, and the other suffers. The first one is over-represented--its proportion of seats is greater than its percentage of the votes-while the party that finishes second is usually under-represented--its proportion of seats is smaller than its percentage of the votes.
The English, with their two-party system, have expressed this phenomenon by the law of the cube: The cube law attempts to predict the percentage distribution of seats won in parliament from the percentage distribution of the electoral vote in a two-party system.
That is, each percentage point advantage in vote won yields more than one percentage point increase in seats won. This curvilinear relationship can formulated mathematically. The ratio of seats won equals the ratio of the cubes of the votes won.
The gap is generally quite large, with the proportion of seats far below the proportion of the votes received. Inthe British Liberal party received This under-representation tends to eliminate the effects of any votes cast for a third party. But voters are aware of this phenomenon.
They also know that a division of votes between two parties holding similar views favors their common adversary. In the case mentioned before, the moderate voters would see clearly that a split between the moderate candidates guarantees a Communist victory: Thus it is that voters tend to abandon the third party in order to concentrate their votes on the two strongest parties.
This tendency toward polarization, a psychological phenomenon, strengthens the mechanical factors conducive to a two-party system. In a system of proportional representation, the situation is quite different. The very principle of proportional representation explains the multiplicity of parties it produces.
Since every minority, no matter how weak it may be, is assured of representation in the legislature, nothing prevents the formation of splinter parties, often separated only by mere shades of opinion.
If the conservative party has 6 million votes in the country, corresponding to seats in parliament, and if it splits into three groups about equal in numbers, proportional representation will give each of these about a hundred deputies, and the conservative family will have the same strength in parliament.
In other respects, this electoral system does not encourage parties to unite. A coalition is useless from an electoral point of view since the entire system tends to permit everyone to take his chances at the polls.
In a system in which elections arc decided by a majority vote on the second of two ballots, political parties are numerous because the existence of a second ballot permits each party to test its chances on the first one without risking irrevocable defeat through the splintering of parties holding similar views; the regrouping occurs on the second ballot through the game of "withdrawals.Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
Since the partition of Ireland, unionism in Ireland has focused on maintaining and preserving the place of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom. A comparative analysis of the political cultures, politics, and governmental framework of the countries of Northern Europe. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden receive the greatest attention.
POL Southern European Government and Politics (3) POL American Parties, Pressure Groups and . Feb 02, · As with gender differences in political participation in general, differences in the types of political participation men and women engage in may be ascribed to disparities in resources, political attitudes and gender roles.
difference between what parties promise and what they do after winning an election’). What is the relationship between governance and political participation?
To see this Figure 2 Government Effectiveness and Political Participation in 37 Countries 0 1 2 3 4 2. The existence of classes, political parties, status groups, pressure groups, interest groups, etc.
testifies to the distribution of power 3. Groups provide a more effective means of representation than election. AP Gov Test 4 - Ch 8 and they believed that a two-party system would end up making the country resemble Great Britain. A. A major difference between political parties and interest groups is that A) interest groups typically shift their positions on issues over time, while political parties tend to keep the same position on issues.