Some of the limitations of of HRM are: HRM is of recent origin. So it lacks universally approved academic base.
The introduction of the term to the English lexicon is widely attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrellat the meeting at the UK's Admiraltywhich led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after World War II.
A "human factor" is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior specific to humans that may influence the functioning of technological systems.
The terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are essentially synonymous. There are many specializations within these broad categories. Specialisations in the field of physical ergonomics may include visual ergonomics.
Specialisations within the field of cognitive ergonomics may include usability, human—computer interactionand user experience engineering.
Some specialisations may cut across these domains: Environmental ergonomics is concerned with human interaction with the environment as characterized by climate, temperature, pressure, vibration, light.
For instance, "user trial engineer" may refer to a human factors professional who specialises in user trials.
According to the International Ergonomics Associationwithin the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization: Physical ergonomics[ edit ] Physical ergonomics: Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomy, and some of the anthropometric, physiological and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.
Physical ergonomics is important in the medical field, particularly to those diagnosed with physiological ailments or disorders such as arthritis both chronic and temporary or carpal tunnel syndrome.
Pressure that is insignificant or imperceptible to those unaffected by these disorders may be very painful, or render a device unusable, for those who are.
Many ergonomically designed products are also used or recommended to treat or prevent such disorders, and to treat pressure-related chronic pain.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders WRMDs result in persistent pain, loss of functional capacity and work disability, but their initial diagnosis is difficult because they are mainly based on complaints of pain and other symptoms. These types of jobs are often those involving activities such as repetitive and forceful exertions; frequent, heavy, or overhead lifts; awkward work positions; or use of vibrating equipment.
Cognitive ergonomics Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Organizational ergonomics[ edit ] Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.
History of the field[ edit ] In ancient societies[ edit ] The foundations of the science of ergonomics appear to have been laid within the context of the culture of Ancient Greece.
A good deal of evidence indicates that Greek civilization in the 5th century BC used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs, and workplaces. One outstanding example of this can be found in the description Hippocrates gave of how a surgeon's workplace should be designed and how the tools he uses should be arranged.
In industrial societies[ edit ] In the 19th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor pioneered the " scientific management " method, which proposed a way to find the optimum method of carrying out a given task.
Taylor found that he could, for example, triple the amount of coal that workers were shoveling by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shoveling rate was reached. They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions.
By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4. Bekhterev argued that "The ultimate ideal of the labour problem is not in it [Taylorism], but is in such organisation of the labour process that would yield a maximum of efficiency coupled with a minimum of health hazards, absence of fatigue and a guarantee of the sound health and all round personal development of the working people.
Dull monotonous work was a temporary necessity until a corresponding machine can be developed.
He also went on to suggest a new discipline of "ergology" to study work as an integral part of the re-organisation of work.
The war saw the emergence of aeromedical research and the need for testing and measurement methods. Studies on driver behaviour started gaining momentum during this period, as Henry Ford started providing millions of Americans with automobiles.
Another major development during this period was the performance of aeromedical research. Many tests were conducted to determine which characteristic differentiated the successful pilots from the unsuccessful ones.
During the early s, Edwin Link developed the first flight simulator. The trend continued and more sophisticated simulators and test equipment were developed. Another significant development was in the civilian sector, where the effects of illumination on worker productivity were examined.
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It gives a simple introduction to generic industry guidance on human factors, which it defines as: "Human factors refer to environmental, organisational and job factors, and human and individual characteristics, which influence behaviour at work in a way which can affect health and safety".