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The proper control of dissonance usually involves specific preparation, dissonance, and resolution. The material in this post is drawn from chapter 8 of the Roig-Francoli. You need to read that chapter. What follows is a very schematic explanation.
Passing tones PT are approached by step and left resolved by step in the same direction. PTs fill in the melodic gap of a third. Double passing tones are possible to fill in the melodic gap of a fourth. Neighbor notes NN are approached by step and resolve by step in the opposite direction, returning to the original preparation note.
They are also usually diatonic, but can occur as chromatic dissonances. A neighbor group NG involves four notes: Anticipations ANT occur on weak beats or fractions. The approach to the anticipation can be anything; the resolution is the same note as the dissonant one.
The anticipation is an early arrival of a chord tone from the next harmony. Incomplete neighbors IN include several figures that we know by other terms Escape Tone, Appoggiatura.
The book is somewhat flexible with these terms, but the important thing to know is that an incomplete neighbor combines a step and a leap. An escape tone ET is a weak beat step to a dissonant neighbor note, and then a leap to a consonant resolution.
An appoggiatura APP involves a leap to a strong beat dissonance most often upthen a stepwise resolution. Suspensions Suspensions are comprised of three parts: Suspensions always resolve down by step.
When you are looking to add suspensions to four-part writing, you look for descending stepwise motion in a voice. There are only four types of suspensions, labeled by the interval content of their suspension and resolution.
The four types are: Retardations are similar to suspensions, except they resolve up by step to a consonance. Retardations also do not have the same limited interval types.The tendency tones of a cadential 6/4 chord always resolve down by step from 3 – 2, and from 1 – LT.
Both parts of the two-chord progression (C6/4 to V) have scale degree 5 in the bass.
The cadential 6/4 to dominant progression functions the same way that a root position V chord would. Harmonize this tune using just primary chords, then write out an accompaniment in “Ballad” style. Note that this first example has an opportunity for a cadential in the third to last measure (see traditional harmony section, page 47).
6 4 “Amazing Grace” with Primary Chords. Cadential 6/4 Chord Cadence - Each music theory lesson online video is a godsend for music theory students.
Figured bass #1 - includes illustrations of all figured bass varieties and some exercises on building chords from figured bass. Chapter 15 - Expanding the Basic Phrase Chapter 15 #1 - writing and identifying viio, V6/4, etc.
Dominant - Dominant chords have the strongest tendency to resolve to a tonic chord, and most of the time do. Although resolution is the typical expected destination for a dominant chord it doesn’t have to always be the case.
Create more emotional music using suspensions, resolutions, and non-chord tones effectively This class is Part 8: Harmonic Expansion, and it continues what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).