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Jari Eloranta, Appalachian State University Introduction Determining adequate levels of military spending and sustaining the burden of conflicts have been among key fiscal problems in history.
Ancient societies were usually less complicated in terms of the administrative, fiscal, technological, and material demands of warfare. The most pressing problem was frequently the adequate maintenance of supply routes for the armed forces. On the other hand, these societies were by and large subsistence societies, so they could not extract massive resources for such ventures, at least until the arrival of the Roman and Byzantine Empires.
The emerging nation states of the early modern period were much better equipped to fight wars. On the one hand, the frequent wars, new gunpowder technologies, and the commercialization of warfare forced them to consolidate resources for the needs of warfare.
On the other hand, the rulers had to — slowly but surely — give up some of their sovereignty to be able to secure required credit both domestically and abroad.
The Dutch and the British were masters at this, with the latter amassing an empire that spanned the globe at the eve of the First World War. The early modern expansion of Western European states started to challenge other regimes all over the world, made possible by their military and naval supremacy as well as later on by their industrial prowess.
The age of total war in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries finally pushed these states to adopt more and more efficient fiscal systems and enabled some of them to dedicate more than half of their GDP to the war effort during the world wars.
Comparatively, even though military spending was regularly the biggest item in the budget for most states before the twentieth century, it still represented only a modest amount of their GDP.
The Cold War period again saw high relative spending levels, due to the enduring rivalry between the West and the Communist Bloc. Finally, the collapse of the Soviet Union alleviated some of these tensions and lowered the aggregate military spending in the world.
Newer security challenges such as terrorism and various interstate rivalries have again pushed the world towards growing overall military spending. This article will first elaborate on some of the research trends in studying military spending and the multitude of theories attempting to explain the importance of warfare and military finance in history.
This survey will be followed by a chronological sweep, starting with the military spending of the ancient empires and ending with a discussion of the current behavior of states in the post-Cold War international system.
By necessity, this chronological review will be selective at best, given the enormity of the time period in question and the complexity of the topic at hand. Theoretical Approaches Military spending is a key phenomenon in order to understand various aspects of economic history: Nonetheless, certain characteristics can be distinguished from the efforts to study this complex topic among different sciences mainly history, economics, and political sciences.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGOFacing the Earth, Grounding the Image: Representations of the Aztec Tlaltecuhtli A thesis s. Waltzing into the Cold War: The Struggle for Occupied Austria (Williams-Ford Texas A&M University Military History Series) [James Jay Carafano] on rutadeltambor.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. As U.S. troops marched into vanquished Austria at the end of World War II, they faced the dual tasks of destroying the remnants of Nazi power . This Very Short Introduction provides a clear and stimulating interpretive overview of the Cold War, one that will both invite debate and encourage deeper investigation. Author: McMahon, Robert J.
Historians, especially diplomatic and military historians, have been keen on studying the origins of the two World Wars and perhaps certain other massive conflicts. Nonetheless, many of the historical studies on war and societies have analyzed developments at an elusive macro-level, often without a great deal of elaboration on the quantitative evidence behind the assumptions on the effects of military spending.
Economic Change and Military Conflict from to that military spending by hegemonic states eventually becomes excessive and a burden on its economy, finally leading to economic ruin.The Business of War. By Wade Frazier. Revised July Introduction.
The Business of War. The "Good War" Brown Shirts in America. A Brief History of Western Anti-Semitism and the Holy War Mentality. This Very Short Introduction provides a clear and stimulating interpretive overview of the Cold War, one that will both invite debate and encourage deeper investigation.
Author: McMahon, Robert J. The End of History and the Last Man is a book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his essay "The End of History?", published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. In the book, Fukuyama argues that the advent [clarification needed] of Western liberal democracy may signal the endpoint of humanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human government.
One of several processional crosses that were among the items looted during the British campaign in Ethiopia in (Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum).
By Benjamin B. Fischer Summary. Introduction. Context: Soviet Cold War Setbacks. The Soviet Intelligence Alert and Operation RYAN. Why an Intelligence Alert? Oct 29, · History on computer essay tamil pdf Research paper ideas topics youtube.
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