Although they are exquisitely aware of how they are affected by others, they seem oblivious to their effect on others. There seems to be a double standard. This is one of the chief reasons many relationships fail.
Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J. Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can Process essay on adoption found in Sumerian inscriptions from B.
These inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices. Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travellers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens.
One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialismthe most common predecessor of direct cultural change. Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture.
The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W. From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian adopting the host culture and abandoning their culture of originPhilistine failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of originand creative-type able to adapt to the host culture while preserving their culture of origin.
Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups InMilton Gordon 's book Assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic.
Later, Young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process.
Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence. In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent.
Thus, the term adaptation is used by Gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power pp. According to this definition, any attempt to maintain one's original values, beliefs, ways of thinking, feelings, or behaviors constitutes mental illness or "maladaptation" p.
This is further emphasized by Gudykunst and Kimstating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves p. Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity Again, this is not integration but rather dissolution of the newcomer's original identity.
According to Gudykunst and Kimincreased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant. Ironically, Gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness [caused by "conformity pressure" p. No matter how unjust or cruel, Gudykunst and Kim argue that the host's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving constitutes the "higher level" of psychic evolution and any resistance to conform indicates that the immigrant is communicatively incompetent, immature, mentally ill pp.
Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" p. In contradistinction from Gudykunst and Kim's version of adaptive evolution, Eric M.
Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion a,  a,   a,    maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration.
According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form. Kramer's a, b, c, theory of Cultural Fusion, which is based on systems theory and hermeneuticsargues that it is impossible for a person to unlearn themselves and that by definition, "growth" is not a zero sum process that requires the disillusion of one form for another to come into being but rather a process of learning new languages and cultural repertoires ways of thinking, cooking, playing, working worshiping, and so forth.Given Madonna's recent decision to adopt a child from Malawi, news and entertainment are abuzz with what you've observed yourself—in your own family, or the family next door, or passing the neighborhood playground—there's a boom in transracial adoption.
Essay on The Child Adoption Process First off, the couple or person wanting to adopt needs to become familiar with the whole idea of adoption. They might want to subscribe to magazines, go to the library, talk to friends who have adopted and research the topic. Bluescreenofdebt • January 11, AM.
This is the 'drive it until it breaks' mentality. Cars with a weird noise can cost hundreds of dollars for something that could have been fixed by using fuel cleaner (a recent experience).
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. © Roane State Community College. Roane State Community College is a TBR and AA/EEO employer and does not discriminate against students, employees, or applicants for.
- Adoption is a process that people go through just so that they can have a child that they would love forever. Also couples who adopt children want the children to have a better life and not be stuck in the foster care system.