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References Although the use of aluminum in cars has been increasing for the past two decades, progress has been limited in developing aluminum auto bodies.
In fact, most aluminum substitution has come in the form of castings and forgings in the transmission, wheels, etc. Car manufacturers have developed all-aluminum cars with two competing designs: However, aluminum is far from being a material of choice for auto bodies.
The substitution of aluminum for steel is partly influenced by regulatory pressures to meet fuel efficiency standards by reducing vehicle weight, and to meet recycling standards.
The key obstacles are the high cost of primary aluminum as compared to steel and added fabrication costs of aluminum panels.
Both the aluminum and the automotive industries have attempted to make aluminum a cost-effective alternative to steel. This paper analyzes the cost of fabrication and assembly of four different aluminum car body designs,making comparisons with conventional steel designs at current aluminum prices and using current aluminum fabrication technology.
It then attempts to determine if aluminum can be an alternative to steel at lower primary aluminum prices, and improved fabrication processes.
Although steel is preferred by most automakers, in recent years changing fuel economy and recycling regulations have intensified weight-reduction attempts by automakers.
Aluminum offers the ideal engineering solution: Its density is one-third that of steel and satisfies the torsion and stiffness requirements of an automotive material.
However, aluminum by weight is about five times more expensive than steel. Despite the high cost, in the past two decades the amount of aluminum in automobiles has increased steadily.
Most of the aluminum penetration has been in transmissions, engine blocks, and wheels, largely as castings with some forgings and extrusions. Simply stated, it is proven that aluminum can be used to replace steel, iron, and copper for various parts in a car.
In all cases, this substitution reduces weight without reducing performance, but in most cases cost increases significantly.
The use of large amounts of aluminum in mass-produced cars, as distinct from expensive, low-volume models, has been frequently predicted but as yet has not come about. The only way aluminum can displace steel with any significance is when aluminum sheet replaces steel as the primary material in the chassis or the body of the car.
During the past decade, vehicle manufacturers have repeatedly attempted to assess the status of aluminum vehicles.
New types of alloys and advanced production techniques have been tested. Interest has been focused mainly on testing suitable joining methods.
The Honda NS-X was the first and only aluminum vehicle made in a limited production run. The Audi A8 is another latest example of a luxury, low-volume all-aluminum spaceframe design car.
Passenger car mass distribution. While aluminum has been able largely to conquer the drive train and heat exchanger areas, the chassis, body and equipment must be regarded as development areas for lightweight construction using aluminum.
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The key issue has been optimizing the design to exploit the advantages of aluminum and, at the same time, be cost effective. Thus, it is in the BIW that large-scale penetration of aluminum must come about. Part-by-part substitution of aluminum for steel, although providing the light weight and better corrosion resistance of aluminum, is not the optimal solution.
Because cars are still essentially made of steel, a complete redesign of the automobile is necessary to make optimal use of aluminum.
Some aluminum and auto companies have promoted the aluminum space-frame design, using stampings, castings, and extrusions of aluminum. Others have been developing the conventional unibody design, which is predominantly a stamped body, in aluminum.
Although both designs have demonstrated their functionality and effectiveness, it is unclear which design would be economically better suited for mass production.
The ultimate success of one or both of the designs depends on the progress and developments in the general area of aluminum fabrication technology, particularly in aluminum stampings.
This paper compares and analyzes the fabrication and assembly costs of aluminum and steel auto bodies in two classes: Technical cost modeling is a spreadsheet-based analytical tool that breaks down the costs of a manufacturing process into elemental process steps.
Factor inputs include design specifications, material parameters e. Models also take into account the economic opportunity i. Inputs are transformed into estimates of fixed and variable costs for each manufacturing step.
Variable costs include energy, materials, and direct labor; fixed costs cover capital equipment required for the manufacturing process, including machinery, design-specific tooling, building expenses, maintenance, and overhead from indirect labor.
In the absence of accurate and site-specific data, the machine and tooling costs can be predicted based on the design specifications of the product using regressions derived from empirical data.EOS DMLS Systems - Tool-less Additive Manufacturing of high-quality prototypes and end products of metal EOS Services We safeguard each step on your path to additive manufacturing success - from the first contact to fully developed solutions during ongoing operations.
Abstract. Combined extrusion-forging processes are now getting importance for its abilities to give improved material properties, high production rate and less material waste when compared with that produced by machining, casting or by assembling the individual parts produced by different manufacturing processes.
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tooling CAM tryout production 18 months. all other factors influencing sheet metal forming, we should recall that a sheet metal forming operation can always be, from the conceptual point of view, drawing or stretching, on which die addendum has little or no impact.
Most. In stamping operations, sheet metal is formed into a desired shape by pressing it in a hydraulic or mechanical press between suitably shaped dies. As a predominant manufacturing process, sheet metal forming has been widely used for the production of automobiles, aircraft, home appliances, beverage cans and many other industrial and commercial products.
This thesis presents a novel approach to replace a conventional steel die by a bi-metallic die made of copper alloy in which the cavity surface is coated with a protective layer of tool steel using laser based additive manufacturing technology, Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) for high pressure die .
Skills Profiles. Click on a Profile Heading to see the Skills Associated with the Profile. Since April , Wire-Tech has committed itself to supply Commercial & Military Aerospace Industries with the Most Cost Effective and Highest Quality Precision Machined Parts, Fabricated and Welded assemblies and Subassemblies with On Time Deliveries. Economics of Composite Material Manufacturing Equipment by Anjali Goel Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment of.